The Command Line
Installing programs in Linux
÷ First, to update your system:
o Open up a terminal window by going to: Applications>Accessories>Terminal
§ sudo apt-get update
o then type:
§ sudo apt-get install build-essential
§ Do an internet search.
§ What are the update and build-essential packages are used for?
· The apt-get update command is run in order to synchronize the software package index on Ubuntu with their Internet sources. The apt-get build-essential package includes the components and references used to build Debian packages.
§ What is the difference between apt-get and apt-get install?
· Apt-get will fetch the package
§ What is your current location? Example: /home/yazan
· The current location is /home/student
§ What happened? What did sudo mkdir /myProgs do?
· Advanced to the next line and a directory named /myProgs was created in the root of the file system.
§ Is the file that you saved to the desktop gone? If not, see me. Yes the file is gone. Where did it go? The file is now in /myProgs
§ What did this do?
· Moved the directory location of the cursor to the /myProgs directory.
§ What are the file permissions for nmap-5.00.tar.bz2? –RW-RW-R–
o If you want to look inside /myProgs/nmap-5.00 to see the files (without changing directories), what will you type? ls /myProgs or ls –l /myProgs. Do this and tell me what the contents are:
o What do you see? The number 10.
What is this command is doing? Use the man command to find out about both the more
o the input file which in this case is INSTALL.
and the wc command. What does this do? Display the number of lines contained in
¡ What is this doing? Checking for the build system, host system and compiler type to ensure compatibility.
¡ What does the make command do? It is a script that runs the compiler to compile the software/source code.
What is this doing? Installs the software just compiled into the correct directories and edits menus and paths as necessary so that the compiled packages work
¡ Why would you do this? To delete the nmap-5.00 directory and files. What does rm do? (remember typing man rm will help) Removes files and directories.
¡ What is the name of the compiler that works with C? gcc
¡ How about C++? g++
¡ What is a compiler? A compiler reads program language code and creates a binary based upon the programmed code. Translates the code to machine language.
¡ What is nano? Nano is a text editor.
What did you do? The command compiled the program I just wrote and saved as
¡ Why do you have to type sudo? Because elevated permissions are needed to execute the file.
¡ What result do you get? A $ appears.
¡ Explain what echo $? Does – The echo command displays whatever is given as input to standard output so $ was displayed to standard output.